ipo meaning

What is an IPO? How to invest in an IPO?

21 minutes, 51 seconds Read

An Initial Public Offer (IPO) occurs when a company offers its shares of stock for sale to the general public for the first time. The company typically sells these shares through an IPO roadshow, which includes presentations and meetings with potential investors to line up interest and share purchases. The information from these meetings is sent back to both professional and amateur investors, who then make their decision regarding whether or not they want to invest in the company. In exchange for their investment, investors receive shares of stock in return. 


The main goal of an IPO is for a business’ value to increase due to shareholder interest, which can lead these businesses into being acquired by more successful companies or being listed on major financial exchanges such as NASDAQ or NYSE. In addition, IPOs can provide access to capital needed by companies at no cost since they are offering as many shares as they want without having to make careful decisions.

what is ipo

The History of the IPO – The Most Valuable Market Entry

The Dutch were financial innovators in the early modern period, helping to lay the groundwork for modern financial systems. The first modern IPO took place in March 1602 when the Dutch East India Company offered shares to the public to order to raise capital. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was the first company in history to issue public bonds and stock shares. In other words, because it was the first company to be listed on an official stock exchange, the VOC was officially the first publicly-traded traded company. While the Italian city-states created the first transferable government bonds, they did not create the other component required to create a fully-fledged capital market: corporate shareholders.

What Happens When You Invest in a New IPO Stock?

The unpredictable nature of the stock market can be nerve-wracking for investors. When you decide to invest in a new IPO stock, you’re hoping for it to succeed and help future generations.

Knowing the ins and outs of what happens when you invest in a new IPO stock is important before deciding whether or not to invest. The risks can range from losing your hard-earned money to not even being able to sell your shares or having them stolen by hackers.

Some people are happy to buy new IPO stocks for their portfolios. But before investing in a new IPO, it is important to understand what happens when you invest in a company’s stock.
Investing in an IPO stock can be a lucrative move, but it can also be risky. In some cases, the company goes bankrupt, or the value of the stock crashes, causing investors to lose lots of money.

ipo meaning

Is Buying IPO Shares a Good Investment?

IPOs tend to attract a lot of media attention, some of which are purposefully generated by the company going public. IPOs are popular among investors in general because they produce volatile price movements on the day of the IPO and shortly afterward. This can result in significant gains on occasion, but it can also result in significant losses. Finally, investors should evaluate each IPO based on the prospectus of the company that is going public, as well as their financial situation and risk tolerance.

Types Of IPOs: Basic on its Pricing

There are two basic types of IPO on its pricing.

Fixed Price Issue – The price of the offerings is evaluated by the company and its underwriters in a Fixed Price Issue. They assess the company’s assets, liabilities, and all other financial aspects. They then use these figures to determine a price for their offerings. The price is determined after taking into account all qualitative and quantitative factors. The fixed price in a fixed price issue may be undervalued during the company’s IPO. The price is generally less than the market value. As a result, investors are always interested in fixed-price issues, which ultimately leads to a positive revaluation of the company.

Book Building Issue – In comparison to other parts of the world, a book building issue is a relatively new concept in India. There is no fixed price in a book building issue, only a price band or range. There are two distinct price ranges.

The lowest price band is referred to as the “floor price,” while the highest price band is referred to as the “cap price.” You can place a bid for the shares at the price you want to pay. Following that, the stock price is determined by weighing the bids. As the book is built, the demand for the share is known at the end of each day.

Type of IPO investors?

Retail Investor 

Retail investors, also known as non-institutional investors, are defined as any investors who are not institutional investors. This includes anyone who purchases and sells debt, equity, or other investments through a broker, bank, real estate agent, or another intermediary. These individuals are not investing on behalf of others; rather, they are in charge of their own finances. Personal goals, such as retirement planning, saving for their children’s education, or financing a large purchase, typically drive non-institutional investors.
Retail investors frequently have to pay higher fees on trades, as well as marketing, commission, and other related fees, due to their limited purchasing power.

Non-Institutional Investor (NII)

All applicants for IPOs worth more than Rs 2 lakh are included in this category. NRIs, HUFs, corporations, Indian individuals, and trusts are all part of it. Non-institutional investors will hold 15% of the total IPO offer. This group includes high-net-worth individuals (HNIs). They are distinguished from other investors by their investible surplus and net worth of over two crores. Investors are unable to place bids at the cutoff price. In addition, they are not permitted to withdraw their bid before the allotment.

Qualified Institutional Investors

This category includes all public financial institutions, commercial banks, foreign portfolio investors, mutual funds, and other similar entities. Before applying, all such organizations must first be registered with SEBI. QIBs are allowed to bid up to 50% of the total amount. They are not permitted to bid at the cut-off price and are not permitted to withdraw their offers after the IPO has closed.

Anchor Investor

This category includes Qualified Institutional Investors who wish to invest ten crores or more via the book-building process. Anchor Investors may be allocated up to 60% of the QIB group. The price of the problem is determined separately for Anchor Investors. Anchor Investors must have a minimum application size of 10 crores, and merchant bankers, promoters, and their immediate family members are ineligible. They are unable to bid at the cut-off price because they are ineligible.

How does an IPO Work?

The 3 Stages of the IPO Process  

Whether an IPO is a good investment or not depends on the market and the specific company. The IPO process has three stages:

The Pre-IPO stage:

The period in which an enterprise establishes whether it is ready to go public, Pre-IPO refers to the period in which an IPO is being planned. This is typically a one-year time period and covers the time between a company’s first filing with securities regulators and when they begin trading as an officially designated public company.

The IPO Stage:

The period in which an enterprise prepares for the initial public offering of its shares, Initial Public Offering is the term used for when a company or the owner of a company makes the initial public offer to investors for their business. In this stage of company development, there is often a large fundraising event to sell shares to raise capital and hopefully provide funding for continued growth.

The Post-IPO Stage: 

The period in which an enterprise operates as a publicly-traded company. The stage of a company’s corporate life cycle following the Initial Public Offering is called Post-IPO, and it typically includes capital investments and acquisitions by the company to increase shareholder value.

ipo; intraday trading strategy

How an IPO price is determined?

The opening price of the share when it first trades on the stock exchange is referred to as the listing price. The listing occurs after the three-day IPO, during which investors subscribe for shares. Following the IPO, the shares are allocated.

It should be noted that the listing price is not the same as the offer price, which is determined by the investment bank assisting the company with the IPO.

The listing price is determined by market demand and supply of the shares, to strike a balance between the two. The listing price is determined based on all of the orders received for the shares, to maximize the number of trades that can be executed when the stock first trades. This is known as price discovery.

When demand for the shares exceeds supply, the listing price is usually higher than the offer price, and vice versa. The issue is said to be oversubscribed if the demand for the shares exceeds the number of shares available. When there is insufficient interest in the shares, the reverse is called under subscription.

Oversubscribing on an IPO?

In the case of a Retail Individual Investor, an IPO is not oversubscribed; if an IPO is oversubscribed in the RII category(Retail Individual Investor), full allotment is made to all applicants.

If there is a small oversubscription, each successful applicant is allotted 1 lot of shares, and the remaining shares are allotted proportionately. If the oversubscription is so large that each successful applicant cannot even be allotted 1 lot of shares, then 1 lot is allotted by computer lucky draw.

Individual investors, Non-Resident Indians, companies, and other entities that bid more than Rs. 2 lakhs are referred to as non-institutional bidders. In the case of NII allotment, the allocation is proportionate. For example, if the IPO in the NII category is subscribed to 100 times, each investor who applied for 100 shares will receive one share.

QIBs are registered with SEBI financial institutions such as banks, FIIs, insurance companies, and mutual funds. They typically apply in large quantities. QIB’s share of the Offer Size is set at 50%. SEBI guidelines prohibit QIBs from withdrawing their bids after the IPOs have closed. They are also not allowed to bid at the cut-off price.

Apply for an IPO: one Must Have 

  • Trading Account
  • Demat Account
  • Bank Account linked Mobile number
  • UPI ID

How to apply for an IPO? How to Buy IPO Online in India

There are two basic methods of applying for an IPO – Online mode & Offline mode.

ONLINE MODE – In this method, you can apply for IPOs online, but keep in mind that you cannot place an IPO order directly through your broker. You must place the order through your bank that offers ASBA services.


What is ASBA?

Application Supported by Blocked Amount (ASBA) is a quick and easy way to apply for IPOs. When you invest through ASBA, the funds are reserved in your account for the IPO. Only if you are allotted shares in the IPO does the money leave your bank account. During this time, you can also earn interest on these funds.
It is also worth noting that the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has made ASBA mandatory for IPO bidding.


  • Sign in to your online banking account.
  • Click on the IPO/e-IPO option in the investments section.
  • To finish the verification process, enter your depository information and bank account information.
  • Following that, you will be directed to a screen titled ‘Invest in IPO.’
  • Choose the IPO for which you want to apply.
  • Enter the ‘bid price’ and the number of shares.
  • Before you place your bid, please read the ‘Terms and Conditions document.
  • By clicking ‘Apply Now,’ you can confirm and place your order.

OFFLINE MODE: There are two ways to apply for an Offline IPO.

  1. Broker for the application form.
  2. Applying directly to the bank. 

From Broker:

A confirmation form will be provided to you. If your request is more than Rs 50,000 you must enclose a photocopy of your PAN card with your application form.

By Bank: 

  • The application form can be downloaded from the BSE/ NSE website.
  • Fill in all the required information like Applicant name, PAN number, Demat Account number, Bid amount, and other important information. Submit application
  • Fill in all the required information like Applicant Name, PAN Number, Demat Account Number, Bid Amount, and other relevant details. 
  • Submit the application to participating ASBA bank branches.
IPO Grey Market

Grey Market IPO is an unofficial market in which individuals buy and sell IPO shares or applications before they are officially launched for trading on the stock exchange. There are no regulations because it is an unofficial over-the-counter market. On a personal level, all transactions are done in cash. Third-party firms such as SEBI, Stock Exchanges, or Brokers are not involved in or supporting this transaction.

Because there is no official platform or set of rules for this trading, it is done among a small group of people. ‘Grey Market Premium’ and ‘Kostak’ are two popular terms used in the IPO Grey Market.

What is Grey Market Premium or GMP of IPO?

Grey Market Premium or GMP is a term used to estimate the price at which the IPO will be listed. Grey market is unofficial but investors keep a tab on it. Grey market operates before the listing and from the IPO start to the allotment date. It indicates a place where we get to know the reaction on listing with an estimated price.

Before investing in an IPO, an investor considers the premium, which can vary depending on market conditions, demand, and subscription volume.

What is Kostak in Grey market?

The premium amount in rupees at which IPO applications are traded in the IPO Grey Market is known as the Kostak (or price of application). ‘Kostak’ value is typically defined as the premium of a maximum lot retail application in an IPO.

The Kostak price is most important before the issue is closed for subscription and the final bidding status is available to IPO investors. After the final bidding status is available to investors, very few IPO applications are traded.’Kostak’ is ideal for those who do not want to take a chance on IPO allotment or listing gains.

Why do people trade in the Grey market?

There are three main reasons for this: 

  • It allows retail investors and traders to buy before the IPO is listed at a lower price; 
  • It allows people to exit the IPO before it is listed; 
  • It allows people to buy IPO shares if they missed out or to add more to their portfolio.

Planning an IPO: Some Things to Consider  

There are many things to consider when planning an IPO. This article provides some of the important points you should keep in mind.

Some of the important things you should consider when planning an IPO are:

  • Find a strong, experienced CEO/co-founder.
  • Business plan with a compelling vision and unique selling proposition.
  • Validate your product/service by analyzing data and finding partners to help with your product development.
  • Drafting a white paper that includes details about your business, team, history, and future plans.
How to Make the Most of Your IPO and Maximize Success?

The IPO of a company is its first major milestone for success. It is an important part of the startup lifecycle and this guide will help you make the most out of your IPO to help maximize success. This section provides five key points on how to make the most of your IPO:

– Understand why it’s important

In recent years, the IPO market has boomed due to the increased number of start-ups. The IPO allows investors to purchase shares in a company that has gone public.

In the age of digital and global markets, a company needs to have strong financials and reach to remain competitive. With the help of IPOs, companies can grow exponentially quickly by reaching a wide number of investors.

IPO is a common term that is often used in the business world and as such, it can be a good idea for businesses to attract investors by issuing an IPO.

One of the important reasons why companies choose to go public is to provide investors with greater returns, which would be beneficial for them.

Some benefits come with going public, such as the ability to sell shares at a higher price.

– Prepare for it properly

For companies going through initial public offerings, the IPO process is a complicated one. However, if prepared properly, the IPO process can be easy and less time-consuming for both company executives and investors alike. With this in mind, make sure you’re investing correctly.

Listing on the stock market is a major moment for any company. To make that happen, it has to prepare properly and ensure the success of its IPO.

The preparation of an IPO is an investment that should not be taken lightly. As with any other investment, the process requires careful planning and anticipation before starting. It also requires some help from experienced professionals such as accountants, lawyers, and consultants to make sure that all requirements are met.

– Address some common mistakes startups make

The most common mistakes that startups make when they are planning to go public are not following the right financial policies and not distributing shares to other investors.

The first mistake that startups often make is not following a proper financial policy which can create problems when getting listed on the market. Getting listed is a very costly affair as it involves listing fees and legal expenses. You should also be sure that you have enough cash reserves for operations ahead of time so that you don’t end up having to borrow from banks after your company goes public

Another common mistake is not distributing shares to other investors. This can expose your company to lawsuits from the minority stockholders in case your company tanks in the market and you need to liquidate assets quickly

– Look at what could go wrong before, during, and after your IPO

There are a lot of things that can go wrong before, during, and after your IPO. To stay on the safe side, you need to know what could go wrong.


  • Not having enough capital to fund all the expenses of launching an IPO.
  • Not being able to convince investors to put their money down without any guarantees.
  • Not having enough time to prepare for going public.
  • Not even knowing that you should go public at all.
  • Not understanding how often IPOs fail and why they fail.


  • Having multiple lawsuits filed against your firm for some reason or another. 
  • Being hacked, losing private data which was never encrypted before releasing it publicly. 
  • Losing customer data due to security breaches. 


  • Failing to meet financial expectations
  • Profit margin falling below the investment amount to recoup losses
  • Poor performance in comparison to competitors

– Keep the future in mind when planning ahead

Many people are still hesitant to invest in an IPO because they fear it will not be successful. However, there are many ways you can do this and make sure you are investing in the right company. One of the best ways is to look at the financials and make sure that the company has been profitable for a few years or more. You should also find out how much cash they have on hand and how much equity they offer investors.

  • Set a goal and stick to it.
  • Share information with your team and stay on the same page.
  • Prepare for all scenarios.
  • Make sure that you have enough funds for your investment.
8 Advantages of buying IPO

Over the last few years, the IPO market has been booming. With more and more companies going public and a rising number of IPOs, now is a great time to invest in the stock market.

  1. Early investors have the opportunity to reap profits early on: Investing in the blockchain is a great opportunity for early investors, who have the chance to make a profit before the markets take off. However, they must be aware of what they’re investing in and know how to do it right.
  2. Potential for massive gains: Initial public offerings (IPOs) are a hot commodity on the stock market. They are a unique opportunity for investors to invest in businesses that offer high potential returns. There is a potential for massive gains if you see it right and invest at the right time.
  3. IPO stocks are more affordable than other stocks and have a lower risk of volatility: IPO stocks are more affordable than other stocks and have a lower risk of volatility. They are also less likely to be affected by external factors such as the economy, market fluctuations, and global events.
  4. Provide liquidity: IPO stocks provide liquidity which means that investors can easily sell their shares at any time and make money; IPOs are traded on public markets. Once an IPO is trading, it can be easily bought or sold by anyone in the marketplace. This liquidity is what makes a stock market so attractive to investors as it offers them the opportunity to make money quickly and for very little work.
  5. Provide protection against inflation: IPO stocks provide protection against inflation because their value can be adjusted to inflation; IPO stocks are a type of security that offers protection against inflation because their value can be adjusted to inflation. The value of the stock is determined by the number of shares traded at the initial public offering and in that way, it follows the rate of inflation.
  6. IPOs provide for diversity in your portfolio: IPOs are a type of security that investors can purchase to own a piece of a company before the public does. By investing in an IPO, you have the option to buy shares of stock from different types of investors with different risk tolerances. This diversity ensures that every investor has access to capital without having to invest in one particular sector.
  7. Chances of the growth: If a company is launching its IPO, it means the company is expanding and growing. Therefore if a company is growing, it will make a profit.
  8. Price Transparency: it means,  the price of the share will be written on the document. It will help both the big and small investors to get the same information about the shares.
7 Disadvantages of buying IPO
  1. The stock price takes a hit after the IPO: The stock price took a hit after the IPO. The company was not able to raise as much money as it had hoped for and did not reach its projected valuation. To compensate for this, the company offered early investors more shares of stock than they would otherwise have been entitled to.
  2. The company may experience a loss in value after the IPO: When an IPO occurs, the company’s stock value may increase as a result. However, if the company’s value decreases for any reason, shareholders may experience a loss in their investment.
  3. The market is unpredictable: The number and cost of shares to buy are determined by the market. If the price of stock drops, you may lose money on your investment. The market is unpredictable, and no one can guarantee that they will make a profit on their investment. The price of the shares will be determined by the market forces themselves, hence why it is important to know how these forces work.
  4. No guarantee of allotment: There is no guarantee of allotment after applying for IPO. Factors like quality of application, experience, and potential market size are more important than age. The IPO process is much more complex than it may seem. Making an application requires a lot of time, energy, and preparation. Many factors contribute to the success of an application such as quality, experience, and potential market size.
  5. Lot size: It means a person cannot buy how many shares they want in the company. The company will provide a fixed lot size for a shareholder. A person only can buy the lot size or its multiples.
  6. Limits on buying the shares: Initial Public Offering has limits on buying the shares. There is a certain limit on buying the share of a particular company. A person cannot buy more than it is limited.
  7. Availability of shares:  it is not mandatory that how many shares a person has applied, will get the same amount, they can receive less amount also. It depends on the availability and the number of applications submitted.
Conclusion: The Future of Investing in an IPO Or Upcoming IPOs

Shortly, investors will have to revaluate their strategies and make sure they can adapt to the changing times.

In this article, we learned about the different types of IPOs that are coming out soon and how they are changing the game for investors. Upcoming IPOs, e also learned about how equity crowdfunding is opening up new doors for small investors and new opportunities for entrepreneurs.

In the future, we are going to see more companies ‘going public’ to raise funds for their projects.

Investing in an IPO is becoming popular among a diverse range of investors who want to be able to participate in the growth of new companies, as well as take advantage of potentially rising share prices. Investors who are looking for dividends and income can find opportunities in IPOs.

World’s Biggest Business Fantasy Game

Similar Posts